نوشته شده در موضوع دسته‌بندی نشده در 24 سپتامبر 2017

Suger (French: [syʒɛʁ]; Latin: Sugerius; French abbot, statesman, and historian. He was one of a beginning congregation of Gothic architecture, and is widely credited with popularizing a style.


Suger’s family origins are unknown. Several times in his papers he suggests that his was a common background, yet this might only be a topos or gathering of autobiographical writing. In 1091, during a age of ten, Suger was given as an oblate to a refuge of St. Denis, where he began his education. He lerned during a monastery of Saint-Denis de l’Estrée, and there initial met a destiny aristocrat Louis VI of France. From 1104 to 1106, Suger attended another school, maybe that trustworthy to a refuge of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire. In 1106 he became secretary to a monk of Saint-Denis. In a following year he became provost of Berneval in Normandy, and in 1109 of Toury. In 1118, Louis VI sent Suger to a probity of Pope Gelasius II during Maguelonne (at Montpellier, Gulf of Lyon), and he lived from 1121 to 1122 during a probity of Gelasius’s successor, Calixtus II.

On his lapse from Maguelonne, Suger became monk of St-Denis. Until 1127, he assigned himself during probity especially with a temporal affairs of a kingdom, while during a following decade he clinging himself to a reorder and remodel of St-Denis. In 1137, he accompanied a destiny king, Louis VII, into Aquitaine on a arise of that prince’s matrimony to Eleanor of Aquitaine, and during a Second Crusade served as one of a regents of a dominion (1147–1149). He bitterly opposite a king’s divorce, carrying himself suggested a marriage. Although he disapproved of a Second Crusade, he himself, during a time of his death, had started priesthood a new crusade.

Suger served as a crony and solicitor both of Louis VI and Louis VII. He urged a aristocrat to destroy a feudal bandits, was obliged for a stately strategy in traffic with a community movements, and endeavoured to regularize a administration of justice. He left his abbey, that hexed substantial property, enriched and detailed by a construction of a new church built in a nascent Gothic style. Suger wrote extensively on a construction of a refuge in Liber de Rebus in Administratione sua Gestis, Libellus Alter de Consecratione Ecclesiae Sancti Dionysii, and Ordinatio. In a 1940s, a distinguished art-historian Erwin Panofsky claimed that a divinity of Pseudo-Dionysius a Areopagite shabby a architectural character of a refuge of St. Denis, yet after scholars have argued opposite such a uncomplicated couple between truth and architectural form.[1] Similarly a arrogance by 19th century French authors that Suger was a “designer” of St Denis (and hence a “inventor” of Gothic architecture) has been roughly wholly ignored by some-more new scholars. Instead he is generally seen as carrying been a playmate and talented enthusiast who speedy a work of an innovative (but now unknown) master mason.[2][3]

A mug once owned by Suger is now in a collections of a National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

Contribution to art[edit]

Abbot Suger, crony and playmate of a French Kings, Louis VI and Louis VII, motionless in about 1137 to reconstruct a good Church of Saint-Denis, a funeral church of a French monarchs.[citation needed]

Suger began with a West front, reconstructing a strange Carolingian façade with a singular door. He designed a façade of Saint-Denis to be an relate of a Roman Arch of Constantine with a three-part multiplication and 3 vast portals to palliate a problem of congestion. The rose window above a West portal is a earliest-known such example, nonetheless Romanesque round windows preceded it in ubiquitous form.[citation needed]

At a execution of a west front in 1140, Abbot Suger changed on to a reformation of a eastern end, withdrawal a Carolingian nave in use. He designed a choir (chancel) that would be suffused with light.[4][5] To grasp his aims, his masons drew on a several new facilities that developed or had been introduced to Romanesque architecture, a forked arch, a ribbed vault, a ambulatory with radiating chapels, a clustered columns ancillary ribs springing in opposite directions and a drifting buttresses that enabled a insertion of vast clerestory windows.[citation needed]

The new structure was finished and dedicated on 11 Jun 1144,[6] in a participation of a King. The Abbey of Saint-Denis so became a antecedent for serve building in a stately domain of northern France. It is mostly cited as a initial building in a Gothic style. A hundred years later, a aged nave of Saint-Denis was rebuilt in a Gothic style, gaining, in a transepts, dual fantastic rose windows.[7]

Suger was also a enthusiast of art. Among a liturgical vessels he consecrated are a gilt eagle, a Queen Eleanor vase, a King Roger decanter, a bullion mug and a sardonyx ewer.[citation needed]


Suger became a inaugural historian of his time. He wrote a honour on Louis VI (Vita Ludovici regis), and collaborated in essay a maybe some-more just story of Louis VII (Historia gloriosi regis Ludovici). In his Liber de rebus in administratione sua gestis, and a addition Libellus de consecratione ecclesiae S. Dionysii, he treats of a improvements he had done to St Denis, describes a value of a church, and gives an comment of a rebuilding. Suger’s works served to impregnate a monks of St Denis with a ambience for story and called onward a prolonged array of quasi-official chronicles.[8]

References and sources[edit]


  1. ^ For a outline of a ‘arguments against’ Panofsky’s view, see Panofsky, Suger and St Denis, Peter Kidson, Journal of a Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 50, (1987), pp. 1–17
  2. ^ Conrad Rudolph, Artistic Change during St Denis: Abbot Suger’s Program and a Early Twelfth Century Controversy Over Art, Princeton, 1990
  3. ^ Kibler et al (eds) Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 1995
  4. ^ When a new back partial is assimilated to that in front,
    The church shines, brightened in a middle.
    For splendid is that that is brightly joined with a bright
    And that a new light pervades,
    Bright is a eminent work Enlarged in a time
    I, who was Suger, carrying been leader
    While it was accomplished.
    Abbot Suger: On What Was Done in His Administration c.1144-8, Chap XXVIII
  5. ^ Erwin Panofsky argued that Suger was desirous to emanate a earthy illustration of a Heavenly Jerusalem, however a border to that Suger had any aims aloft than cultured pleasure has been called into doubt by some-more new art historians on a basement of Suger’s possess writings.
  6. ^ Honour, H. and J. Fleming, (2009) A World History of Art. 7th edn. London: Laurence King Publishing, p. 376. ISBN 9781856695848
  7. ^ Wim Swaan, The Gothic Cathedral
  8. ^ Anne D. Hedeman, “The Royal Image : Illustrations of a Grandes Chroniques de France, 1274–1422”, Berkeley, Los Angeles Oxford, University of California Press, 1991, Introduction, pp3 – 6


  • “Suger”, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911
  • “Suger”, The Middle Ages, A Concise Encyclopedia, H.R. Loyn Editor, 1989 (ISBN 0-500-27645-5)
  • Abbot Suger of St. Denis: Church and State in Early Twelfth-Century France. Grant, Lindy. Essex, UK: Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1998. (ISBN 0-582-05150-9)
  • The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecture a Medieval Concept of Order (Third Edition), Van Simson, Otto. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1988. Bollingen Series XLVIII. (ISBN 0-691-09959-6)..
  • “Suger, Abbot of Saint-Denis” Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, ed. Michael Kelly, 2nd ed., 6 v. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014) v.6, p. 78-79

Further reading[edit]

  • Gerson, Paula Lieber. (1986). Abbot Suger and Saint-Denis: a symposium, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9780870994081
  • Suger, Abbot of Saint Denis,. The Deeds of Louis a Fat. Translated with introduction and records by Richard Cusimano and John Moorhead. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press,1992. (ISBN 0-8132-0758-4)
  • Suger, Abbot of Saint Denis,. The Deeds of Louis a Fat. Translated by Jean Dunbabin (free, though no annotations)

Article source:

N1349096676 Suger N1353958982 Suger N1384137018 Suger N1381425163 Suger
آموزش کامل آشپزی و شیرینی پزی نسخه جدید آموزش کامل آشپزی و شیرینی پزی نسخه جدید مجموعه اول هنر آشپزی؛ نان و شیرینی کتاب هنر آشپزی و شیرینی پزی رزان

انواع غذا،سالاد،دسر،آش،شیرینی،63 نوع غذای ایرانی

آموزش کامل آشپزی و شیرینی پزی نسخه جدید

مجموعه‌ای شامل بیش از 300 کتاب هنر آشپزی با موضوع تهیه انواع نان، شیرینی و کیک

کامل ترین مجموعه دستور پخت غذاهای ایرانی و خارجی

12,900 تومان buy Suger 13,900 تومان buy Suger 24,000 تومان buy Suger 31,000 تومان buy Suger
N1392229450 Suger      
کتاب دایره المعارف آشپزی و شیرینی پزی      

کتاب جامع آشپزی و شیرینی پزی و سفره آرایی

30,800 تومان buy Suger

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *