نوشته شده در موضوع دسته‌بندی نشده در 16 نوامبر 2017

Main ingredients
Often flour, sugar, milk, butter or shortening, baking powder, eggs
Cookbook: Pastry  Media: Pastry

Pastry is a mix of flour, H2O and cutting that might be delectable or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are mostly described as bakers’ confectionery. The word “pastries” suggests many kinds of baked products finished from reduction such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder, and eggs. Small tarts and other honeyed baked products are called pastries. The French word pâtisserie is also used in English (with or yet a accent) for a same foods. Common fritter dishes embody pies, tarts, quiches and pasties.[1][2]

Pastry can also impute to a pastry dough,[3] from that such baked products are made. Pastry mix is rolled out thinly and used as a bottom for baked products.

Pastry is differentiated from bread by carrying a aloft fat content, that contributes to a flaky or unsound texture. A good fritter is light and ethereal and fatty, yet organisation adequate to support a weight of a filling. When creation a shortcrust pastry, caring contingency be taken to mix a fat and flour entirely before adding any liquid. This ensures that a flour granules are sufficient coated with fat and reduction expected to rise gluten. On a other hand, overmixing formula in prolonged gluten strands that harden a pastry. In other forms of fritter such as Danish fritter and croissants, a evil flaky hardness is achieved by regularly rolling out a mix identical to that for leavening bread, swelling it with butter, and folding it to furnish many skinny layers.


Shortcrust pastry 
Shortcrust fritter is a simplest and many common pastry. It is finished with flour, fat, butter, salt, and H2O to connect a dough.[4] This is used especially in tarts. It is also a fritter that is used many mostly in creation a quiche. The routine of creation fritter includes blending of a fat and flour, adding water, and rolling out a paste. The fat is churned with a flour first, generally by rubbing with fingers or a fritter blender, that inhibits gluten arrangement by cloaking a gluten strands in fat and formula in a brief (as in crumbly; hence a tenure shortcrust), proposal pastry.[5] A associated form is a honeyed sweetcrust pastry, also famous as pâte sucrée, in that sugarine and egg yolks have been combined (rather than water) to connect a pastry.[6]
Flaky pastry
Flaky fritter is a elementary fritter that expands when baked due to a series of layers. It bakes into a crisp, buttery pastry. The “puff” is performed by a shard-like layers of fat, many mostly butter or shortening, formulating layers that enhance in a feverishness of a oven when baked.
Puff pastry 
Puff fritter has many layers that means it to enhance or “puff” when baked. Puff fritter is finished regulating flour, butter, salt, and water. The fritter rises adult due to a H2O and fats expanding as they spin into steam on heating.[7] Puff pastries come out of a oven light, flaky, and tender.
Choux pastry 
Choux fritter is a really light fritter that is mostly filled with cream. Unlike other forms of pastry, choux is in fact closer to a mix before being baked that gives it a ability to be piped into several shapes such as a éclair and profiterole. Its name originates from a French choux, definition cabbage, overdue to a severe cabbage-like figure after cooking.[8]
Choux starts as a reduction of divert or H2O and butter that are exhilarated together until a butter melts, to that flour is combined to form a dough. Eggs are afterwards beaten into a mix to serve heighten it. This high commission of H2O causes a fritter to enhance into a light, vale pastry. Initially, a H2O in a mix turns to steam in a oven and causes a fritter to rise; afterwards a starch in a flour gelatinizes, thereby solidifying a pastry.[9] Once a choux mix has expanded, it is taken out of a oven; a hole is finished in it to let a steam out. The fritter is afterwards placed behind in a oven to dry out and turn crisp. The fritter is filled with several flavors of cream and is mostly surfaced with chocolate. Choux pastries can also be filled with reduction such as cheese, tuna, or duck to be used as appetizers.
Phyllo (Filo)
Phyllo is a paper-thin fritter mix that is used in many layers. The phyllo is generally wrapped around a stuffing and brushed with butter before baking. These pastries are really ethereal and flaky.[10]
Hot H2O membrane pastry
Hot H2O membrane pastry is used for savoury pies, such as pig pies, diversion pies and, some-more rarely, beef and kidney pies. Hot H2O membrane is traditionally used for creation hand-raised pies. The common reduction are prohibited water, lard and flour, a fritter is finished by heating water, melting a fat in this, bringing to a boil, and finally blending with a flour. This can be finished by violence a flour into a reduction in a pan, or by kneading on a fritter board. Either way, a outcome is a prohibited and rather gummy pulp that can be used for hand-raising: moulding by hand, infrequently regulating a plate or play as an middle mould. As a membrane cools, a figure is mostly retained, and it is filled and lonesome with a crust, prepared for baking. Hand-raised prohibited H2O membrane fritter does not furnish a neat and uniform finish, as there will be sagging during a cooking of a filled pie, that is generally supposed as a symbol of a hand-made pie.[11]


  • Pastry: A form of food used in dishes such as pies or strudel.
  • Pastry bag or piping bag: An mostly cone-shaped bag that is used to make an even tide of dough, frosting, or flavored piece to form a structure, adorn a baked item, or fill a fritter with a custard, cream, jelly, or other filling.
  • Pastry board: A block or form board, preferably marble yet customarily wood, on that fritter is rolled out.
  • Pastry brake: Opposed and counter-rotating rollers with a non-static opening by that fritter can be worked and reduced in density for blurb production. A tiny chronicle is used domestically for pasta production.
  • Pastry case: An underdone or blind baked fritter enclosure used to reason delicious or honeyed mixtures.
  • Pastry cream: Confectioner’s custard. An egg- and flour-thickened custard finished with honeyed divert flavored with vanilla. Used as a stuffing for flans, cakes, pastries, tarts, etc. The flour prevents a egg from curdling.
  • Pastry cutters: Various steel or cosmetic outlines of shapes, e.g. circles, fluted circles, diamonds, gingerbread men, etc., sensory on one corner and used to cut out analogous shapes from biscuit, scone, pastry, or cake mixtures.[12]
  • Pastry blender: A kitchen exercise used to scrupulously mix a fat and flour. Usually assembled of hoop or plastic, with churned wires or tiny blades connected to a handle.
  • Viennoiserie: French tenure for “Viennese pastry,” which, nonetheless it technically should be leavening raised,[13] is now ordinarily used as a tenure for many laminated and puff- and choux-based pastries, including croissants, brioche, and pain au chocolat.[14]


Different kinds of pastries are finished by utilizing a healthy characteristics of wheat flour and certain fats. When wheat flour is churned with H2O and kneaded into plain dough, it develops strands of gluten, that are what make bread tough and elastic. In a standard pastry, however, this toughness is unwanted, so fat or oil is combined to delayed down a growth of gluten. Pastry flour can also be used, given it typically has a reduce turn of protein than all-purpose or bread flours.[15]

Lard or suet work good since they have a coarse, bright structure that is really effective. Using unclarified butter does not work good since of a H2O content; simplified butter, that is probably water-free, is better, yet shortcrust fritter regulating customarily butter might rise an defective texture. If a fat is melted with prohibited H2O or if glass oil is used, a skinny greasy covering between a grains offers reduction of an barrier to gluten arrangement and a ensuing fritter is tougher.[16]


The European tradition of pastry-making is mostly traced behind to a shortcrust epoch of flaky doughs that were in use via a Mediterranean in ancient times.

In a ancient Mediterranean, a Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians all had filo-style pastries in their culinary traditions. There is also clever justification that Egyptians constructed pastry-like confections that were finished by dipping a baked flour cake in sugar and portion with dried nuts as toppings. They had veteran bakers that certainly had a skills to do so, and they also had indispensable materials like flour, oil, and honey.[citation needed] In a plays of Aristophanes, created in a 5th century BC, there is discuss of sweetmeats, including tiny pastries filled with fruit. The Roman cuisine used flour, oil and H2O to make pastries that were used to cover meats and fowls during baking in sequence to keep in a juices, yet a fritter was not meant to be eaten. A fritter that was meant to be eaten was a richer fritter that was finished into tiny pastries containing eggs or tiny birds and that were mostly served during banquets. Greeks and Roman both struggled in creation a good fritter since they used oil in a cooking process, and oil causes a fritter to remove a stiffness.[17]

In a Gothic cuisine of Northern Europe, fritter chefs were means to furnish nice, unbending pastries since they baked with cutting and butter. Some deficient lists of reduction have been found in Gothic cookbooks, yet no full, minute versions. There were stiff, dull pastries called coffins or ‘huff paste’, that were eaten by servants customarily and enclosed an egg yolk glitter to assistance make them some-more beguiling to consume. Medieval pastries also enclosed tiny tarts to supplement richness.

It was not until about a mid-16th century that tangible fritter recipes began appearing.[16][18] These recipes were adopted and blending over time in several European countries, ensuing in a innumerable fritter traditions famous to a region, from Portuguese “pastéis de nata” in a west to Russian “pirozhki” in a east. The use of chocolate in pastry-making in a west, so hackneyed today, arose customarily after Spanish and Portuguese traders brought chocolate to Europe from a New World starting in a 16th century. Many culinary historians cruise French fritter cook Antonin Carême (1784–1833) to have been a initial good master of fritter creation in complicated times.

Pastry-making also has a clever tradition in many tools of Asia. Chinese fritter is finished from rice, or opposite forms of flour, with fruit, honeyed bean pulp or sesame-based fillings. The mooncakes are partial of Chinese Mid Autumn Festival traditions, while cha siu bao, steamed or baked pig buns, are a unchanging delicious low sum menu item. In a 19th century, a British brought western-style fritter to a distant east, yet it would be a French-influenced Maxim in a 1950s that finished western fritter renouned in Chinese-speaking regions starting with Hong Kong. The tenure “western cake” (西餅) is used to impute to western pastry, differently Chinese fritter is assumed. Other Asian countries such as Korea ready normal pastry-confections such as tteok, hangwa, and yaksik with flour, rice, fruits, and informal specific reduction to make singular desserts. Japan also has specialized pastry-confections improved famous as mochi and manjū. Pastry-confections that issue in Asia are clearly graphic from those that issue in a west, that are generally most sweeter.

Pastry chefs[edit]

Pastry chefs use a multiple of culinary ability and creativity in baking, decoration, and cooking with ingredients. Many baked products need a lot of time and focus. Presentation is an critical aspect of fritter and dessert preparation. The pursuit is mostly physically demanding, requiring courtesy to fact and prolonged hours.[19] Pastry chefs are also obliged for formulating new recipes to put on a menu, and they work in restaurants, bistros, vast hotels, casinos and bakeries.[20] Pastry baking is customarily finished in an area somewhat apart from a categorical kitchen. This territory of a kitchen is in assign of creation pastries, desserts, and other baked goods.[21]


See also[edit]

  • Food portal


External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media associated to Pastries.

  • Pastry – entrance during Encyclopædia Britannica



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